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APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition)

This page provides a breakdown on a specific component of a Reference list citation.  It reviews the details that can help you construct your citations to fit the needs of the source you are citing.

Date Basics

List the Date the item was published after the Author information.


Rudd, A. & Gordon, B. S. (2010).

Formatting Date information:

Provide the year the item was published, posted, or produced in parentheses and close it with a period. 

In most cases, you only need to include the year- not the full date.  In limited circumstances you can include the full Date. See below and the APA Manual for details.

APA Manual p. 289, Sections 9.13 - 9.17


Full Date

Only include the full date for the item if there is no additional way of pinpointing that exact item. For example, a full date is needed for a newspaper article because searching a year's worth of newpapers is too time consuming when an exact date will get you to the right issue.  As a general rule, include the full date for magazine articles, newspaper articles, online postings, and online videos.


Kelley, S. (2007, November 25).

Retrieval Date

Only include a retrieval date for an online resource, in front of its URL, if the content you are citing is designed to be dynamic and unlikely to be archived and easily retrievable.


Retrieved March 4, 2020, from

No Date

If an item provides no Date information, simply write n.d. in the parentheses.


Thompson, C. F. (n.d.).  

Same Author and Date Info

If you are citing multiple items by the same author that were created the same year (e.g. multiple webpages on the same website), distinguish the sources by including letters in the Date information.


Rollins, R. T., & Hammonds, P. M. (2017a).

Rollins, R. T., & Hammonds, P. M. (2017b).