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APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition)

How to Use This Guide

Citations are a two-part system: in-text citations connected to reference list citations.

This guide will help you create in-text citations that correlate with the corresponding reference list citations.

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Follow the assignment formatting instructions provided by your professors.  They often dictate which style and edition they prefer you use.  If you are uncertain, it's usually best to ask them directly what they prefer. 

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If you are citing a source that has multiple authors, follow the directions below.

Multiple Authors

Always cite both authors' names in-text every time you reference them.


Johnson and Smith (2019) found...

...was their conclusion (Johnson & Smith, 2019).


APA Manual p.266, Section 8.17

If a document has three or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with "et al." from the first citation to the last.


   Ramirez et al. (2017) likened abnormal psychology to...

   ... distractions (Ramirez et al., 2017).

Important Note: If you have two or more documents that look the same when shortened, please follow the guidelines set out in the Authors and Dates Matching section.


APA Manual p.266, Section 8.17