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APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition)

How to Use This Guide

Citations are a two-part system: in-text citations connected to reference list citations.

This guide will help you create in-text citations that correlate with the corresponding reference list citations.

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Follow the assignment formatting instructions provided by your professors.  They often dictate which style and edition they prefer you use.  If you are uncertain, it's usually best to ask them directly what they prefer. 

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Examples - Multimedia

Name of Host. (Host). (Date range or the production date for an episode). Title of Episode [Type of
Work]. In Title of podcast [Type of Work]. Production Company. URL



Hobbes, M. (Host) & Marshall, S. (Host). (2018 to present). You're wrong about [Audio podcast].


Shaw, Y. (Host). (2020, March 27). White vs. White (Season 6, Episode 4) [Audio podcast episode]. In Invisibilia. NPR.

APA Manual p. 345, Examples 93 and 94

Author or Artist if available. (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of Work]. Name of the Institution, Location of the Insitution. URL


Abbott, B. (1946). The wing [Photograph]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

APA Manual pp. 346-347


Producer and/or Director (Function). (Year of release). Title of video [Medium consulted]. URL


Navaxky, M., & O'Connor, K. (Producers, Directors, & Writers). (2006) Living old: The modern realities of aging in America [DVD].

Tip: The director should be credited as the author of the film.  If unknown then someone in another role should be credited.

APA Manual pp. 342-343, Example 84

In Theaters

Director and/or Producer. (Function). (Year of release). Title of film [Film]. Country of origin: Name of Studio.


Wallace, R. (Director). (2010). Secretariat [Film]. United States: Walt Disney Pictures.

APA Manual pp. 342-343 Example 84

TV Series

Producer(s) name. (Function). (Years of broadcast). Title of Series [Type of Work]. Name of Production Company; Channel


Simon, D., Colesberry, R.F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The Wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO

Tip: See Example 87 in the APA Manual to format a reference to an individual episode of a TV series.

APA Manual p. 434 Example 86

Author. [Screen name]. (Date produced or posted). Title of video [Medium consulted]. Platform. URL


Harvard University. [Harvard]. (2007, December 10). An introduction to the dataverse network as an infrastructure to data sharing [Video]. YouTube.

SFP Productions. [Films for the Humanities] (1989). Before the alphabet [Video]. Films On Demand.

APA Manual p. 344, Example 90