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APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition)

How to Use This Guide

Citations are a two-part system: in-text citations connected to reference list citations.

This guide will help you create in-text citations that correlate with the corresponding reference list citations.

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Follow the assignment formatting instructions provided by your professors.  They often dictate which style and edition they prefer you use.  If you are uncertain, it's usually best to ask them directly what they prefer. 

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Preparing the List

Title the list "Reference" if you have one citation or "References" if you multiple citations.

Always use a hanging indent for each citation.

Alphabetize the references by the first Author's last name or by Title, if no Author is listed.

Listed in this section are examples of Reference list citations. They represent the standard citation format for different types of sources in the broad categories: print, electronic, and multimedia.


Book Chapters
Journal Articles
Magazine Articles
Newspaper Articles
Encyclopdia Entries
Government Publications


Journal Articles with DOI
Journal Articles without DOI
Magazine Articles
Newspaper Articles
Encyclopedia Entries
Government and Academic Publications


Audio (Podcasts)
Images (Online)
Video (Film)
Video (Television)
Video (Online)

If you are trying to build a citation that does not conform to these basic examples, please see the Step-by-Step Citation guide for more details on constructing citations with unique circumstances.